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Related Party Transactions

The intricacies of Related Party Transactions under the Companies Act, 2013—emphasizing transparency, approvals, and compliance.

The Companies Act, 2013 emerges as a transformative force, steering the Indian corporate sector towards enhanced transparency and disclosure norms. A focal point within this paradigm shift is the scrutiny of ‘Related Party Transactions’ (RPTs), encapsulated in the robust Section 188 of the Companies Act, 2013. This exploration unveils the nuances of Related Party Transactions and their profound implications in the Indian legal landscape.

What Is a Related-Party?

In the intricate tapestry of corporate relationships, the term ‘Related Party’ encompasses directors, key managerial personnel, and entities intricately linked to a company. This extends to the kin of directors, partnerships involving them, and firms where directors hold substantial stakes. The definition further encompasses subsidiaries, associates, and individuals appointed by senior management, forming a comprehensive network of associations.

Understanding Related-Party Transactions

Related Party Transactions, a pivotal aspect of corporate dealings, span diverse transactions from the sale of goods and services to property leasing and agent appointments. These transactions, integral to the functioning of businesses, demand a discerning eye to ensure transparency and avert conflicts of interest.

Nature of Approval Required

Section 188 lays down the mandate that every company, regardless of its capital standing, must seek the imprimatur of the Board of Directors before embarking on any Related Party Transactions. Meetings facilitating such transactions must judiciously exclude directors with vested interests, ensuring an impartial and fair decision-making process.

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Disclosure Norms

Transparency stands as the cornerstone of the Companies Act, 2013. Board meetings discussing related party transactions must be marked by comprehensive disclosure, unraveling details such as the nature of relationships, contract duration, material terms, and pricing mechanisms. Directors with vested interests are duty-bound to transparently disclose their involvements, fostering an environment of openness and accountability.

Disclosures in the Register

To fortify transparency, companies are mandated to maintain registers, meticulously entering particulars of related party transactions. This not only facilitates effective tracking of transactions but also augments the auditing process, ensuring a robust mechanism for accountability.


Empowered by the Companies Act, 2013, audit committees play a pivotal role in scrutinizing related party transactions. Their oversight ensures that all transactions conform to legal provisions and have traversed the requisite approval processes. Beyond transactional scrutiny, audit committees possess the authority to delve into matters within their purview, accessing pertinent company records to uphold the standards of corporate governance.


Non-compliance with the Companies Act, 2013 in related party transactions unfurls serious consequences. Contracts entered into without board consent or special resolution approval may be rendered voidable. Individuals, be they directors or employees, embroiled in non-compliance may face punitive measures, including imprisonment or financial fines. Firms themselves may encounter substantial penalties, underlining the imperative of adherence to regulatory norms.


What are the disclosure requirements for RPTs?

Disclosure mandates include comprehensive information on nature, terms, and parties involved in RPTs. Boards must transparently report in meetings and official documents.

What are the approval requirements for RPTs?

Approval from the Board of Directors is essential for all RPTs, ensuring fair decision-making. Special resolutions may be needed for specific high-value transactions.

What are the potential risks of RPTs?

Risks include conflicts of interest, preferential treatment, and potential misuse of corporate resources. Unchecked RPTs can harm shareholder trust and corporate integrity.

How can companies mitigate the risks of RPTs?

Implement stringent governance policies, ensure independent board evaluations, and employ third-party assessments. Transparent reporting and adherence to regulatory guidelines are crucial.

Why is it important to monitor RPTs?

Monitoring RPTs safeguards against ethical breaches and financial improprieties. It reinforces corporate governance, preserves stakeholder trust, and aligns with regulatory compliance standards.

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