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Service Level Agreement

7 Things to Keep in Mind While Building an SLA

Service Level Agreements (SLAs) serve as the foundation of the relationship between a client and a vendor. SLAs have a direct impact on the efficacy and efficiency of the services delivered. They establish the expectations of both parties, delineate responsibilities, and create the basis for performance measurement. But the process of structuring an SLA can be intricate and challenging, requiring a careful approach and in-depth analysis of several factors


The essence of an SLA lies not just in its existence, but in the meticulous manner it is designed and implemented. A well-structured SLA not only avoids potential misunderstandings and disagreements but also paves the way for smooth business operations and value creation. Let’s journey through the critical steps to structure an SLA effectively.

1. Both the Client and Vendor Must Structure the SLA

The first step in structuring an SLA involves the active participation of both the client and the vendor. A common mistake is when one party solely designs the SLA without the other party’s input, leading to skewed expectations and possible dissatisfaction down the line.

An SLA should be a collaborative document that represents mutual understanding, consensus, and agreement. It should clearly specify the service standards, delivery parameters, performance measures, penalties for non-compliance, and processes for conflict resolution. By involving both parties in structuring the SLA, it will reflect the requirements, expectations, capabilities, and constraints of both sides, ensuring fair play and fostering a strong, productive relationship.

2. Analyse Technical Goals & Constraints

SLAs are not solely business documents – they are also highly technical. The service provider’s capabilities and limitations, as well as the client’s technical needs and constraints, must be taken into account. This ensures that the SLA is realistic, achievable, and aligned with the technical realities on the ground.

To do this, engage with technical teams from both parties to understand the landscape. Discuss technological capabilities, infrastructure, human resources, skills, and potential bottlenecks. Also, remember to factor in any future technological changes or upgrades that may impact the SLA.

3. Determine the Availability of Budget

This step involves deciding how much downtime is acceptable in the provision of the service. The availability budget is the timeframe within which the service must be operational, and it’s typically expressed as a percentage. For instance, “five nines” (99.999%) availability implies a downtime of just over five minutes per year.

Determining the availability budget requires an understanding of the criticality of the service, the impact of downtime, and the cost of ensuring high availability. Striking the right balance here is key – aim for an availability budget that ensures business continuity without being prohibitively expensive.

4. Application Profiles

The next step is to define the application profiles or the specifics of how the services will be delivered. This involves detailing what the service entails, how it will be provided, the resources involved, and any requirements or constraints specific to the service.

Application profiles should be detailed and explicit to prevent any ambiguity or misinterpretation. They form the blueprint of the service and serve as the reference point for all service-related activities and decisions.

5. Availability and Performance Standards

Now, we need to set the service availability and performance standards. These standards specify the expected level of service and act as the benchmark for assessing the service’s success.

While setting these standards, ensure they are SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound. Unattainable standards will only lead to non-compliance and disputes, while too lenient standards will not drive the service’s effectiveness and efficiency.

6. Metrics and Monitoring

What gets measured gets managed, and this is particularly true in the context of SLAs. Metrics should be defined for all critical aspects of the service, including service availability, response times, issue resolution times, and customer satisfaction, among others.

Next, implement systems and processes for tracking these metrics and regularly reviewing the data. This will not only help identify any service issues early on but also provide insights for continuous service improvement.

7. Customer Business Needs and Goals

While the technicalities are vital, it’s also essential to keep the customer’s business needs and goals front and center when structuring the SLA. After all, the primary purpose of the service is to support the customer’s business.

Understand the customer’s business model, their strategic objectives, and how the service fits into their operations. This will help in aligning the SLA with the customer’s business needs and ensuring that the service delivers true business value.

8. Performance Indicator Metrics

Lastly, define the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) metrics. These are the performance measures that matter most in assessing the service’s success.

Typically, KPIs might include uptime, response time, number of issues resolved within the agreed timeframe, customer satisfaction scores, etc. These KPIs should be reviewed regularly, and their data should be analyzed for trends, patterns, and insights.


Structuring an effective Service Level Agreement is a strategic process that requires a deep understanding of the technical and business landscape, a collaborative approach, and a focus on continuous improvement. By following these eight steps, businesses can ensure that their SLAs are robust, fair, and value-creating, serving as a solid foundation for a productive client-vendor relationship.

FAQs on Service Level Agreements

What is SLA methodology?

SLA methodology refers to the systematic process of defining, managing, and monitoring the service levels between a service provider and a customer. It involves setting clear expectations, identifying performance metrics, implementing monitoring mechanisms, and establishing procedures for addressing any service issues.

What are examples of a SLA?

Examples of SLAs could include a cloud service provider guaranteeing 99.99% uptime to its customers, an IT support company committing to resolving any customer issues within two hours, or a logistics company pledging to deliver all packages within three business days.

What is SLA deadline?

An SLA deadline refers to the time frame within which a service provider is obligated to fulfil a service requirement or resolve a service issue. For instance, an IT support SLA might specify that all critical issues must be resolved within one business day.

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