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The Role of Technology in Modern Litigation

Know the crucial role of technology in modern Indian litigation. From e-filing to e-discovery examine the ways technology has revolutionised the legal profession.

Overview on Role of Technology in Legal Profession

In recent years, technology has transformed every aspect of our lives. The legal profession in India is no exception, and technology has brought about significant changes in the way litigation is conducted. From electronic filing to online dispute resolution, technology has transformed the way Indian lawyers approach cases.

The Growth of E-Filing

E-filing, or electronic filing, has grown significantly in India over the past decade. It is the process of submitting income tax returns (ITRs) online through the Income Tax Department’s website or other authorised intermediaries.

One of the main reasons for the growth of e-filing in India is the government’s push towards digitisation and the introduction of the Digital India campaign. The government has been promoting the use of technology in various sectors, including tax administration, to make services more efficient and accessible.

Additionally, e-filing offers several benefits to taxpayers, such as faster processing of returns, ease of use, and a reduced need for paperwork. E-filing also helps to minimise errors and improve the accuracy of tax filings.

According to data from the Income Tax Department, the number of e-filings increased from 2.5 million in 2008-09 to over 6.7 million in 2011-12. The growth has been steady, with over 6.7 million e-filings in 2017-18 and over 6.7 million in 2018-19. In the financial year 2019-20, the number of e-filings increased to over 6.7 million.

Electronic Evidence in Courts

Technology has also revolutionised the way evidence is presented in court. Electronic evidence, such as emails and social media posts, are now admissible in Indian courts. Lawyers can use electronic evidence to prove their case and refute the other side’s claims. This has led to a significant change in the way lawyers prepare their cases and present evidence in court. 

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E-Discovery Process in India

Another technological advancement in Indian litigation is e-discovery. E-discovery is the process of gathering, reviewing, and producing electronically stored information (ESI) as part of the litigation process. This process has streamlined the discovery process, making it easier and more efficient to review large amounts of data.

Online Dispute Resolution

Technology has also introduced online dispute resolution (ODR) in India. ODR is the process of resolving disputes online, without the need for a physical court appearance. This process has made it easier and more affordable for people to resolve disputes, particularly those who live in remote areas of the country.

Challenges of Technology in Litigation

Technology has become an increasingly important aspect of the litigation process, helping to improve efficiency and accuracy. However, there are also several challenges associated with the use of technology in litigation.

Technical issues: One of the biggest challenges of technology in litigation is technical issues that can arise, such as server crashes, software malfunctions, or data breaches. These issues can cause delays and disruptions to the litigation process, which can be costly and frustrating for all parties involved.

E-discovery: Electronic discovery (e-discovery) involves the collection, review, and production of electronically stored information (ESI) as evidence in litigation. The sheer volume of ESI can be overwhelming, and identifying relevant information can be a time-consuming and expensive process.

Cost: Implementing and using technology in litigation can be expensive, particularly for smaller law firms and individual litigants who may not have the financial resources to invest in the necessary hardware and software.

Security: The use of technology in litigation can also create security risks, particularly when dealing with sensitive or confidential information. Cyberattacks and data breaches are becoming more common, and law firms must take steps to ensure the security of their clients’ information.

Ethics: Lawyers must also navigate ethical issues related to the use of technology in litigation, such as the duty to maintain client confidentiality and the obligation to provide competent representation when using technology.

Overall, while the use of technology in litigation can offer many benefits, it is important to be aware of these challenges and take steps to mitigate their impact. This can involve implementing best practices for data security, investing in reliable technology, and staying up-to-date with ethical guidelines and emerging technology trends.


Technology has transformed Indian litigation, making it more efficient, accessible, and affordable. From e-filing to online dispute resolution, technology has brought about significant changes in the legal profession. While there are challenges to the use of technology in litigation, the benefits far outweigh the risks.

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