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How Can I Get Old Land Records in India?

Discovering old land records in India involves navigating the archives of state Revenue Departments. Individuals seeking historical land documents for property research, legal matters, or genealogy can follow a systematic approach.


Common men have always desired to own property or land and work hard to accomplish this goal. Imagine, however, that after discovering the home of our dreams and paying for it, we find out that it was an unlawful or “Benami property”.  In addition, what should be done if the property already has issues?

It is nearly impossible to learn every piece of information regarding the property one desires to purchase. In such circumstances, the government has taken the initiative and plays a vital role in help homeowners find old records of land in India. It has enacted legislation regarding land characteristics. Everyone should be familiar with the rules and rights governing land acquisition. And in this blog, you will learn about them all. 

Establishment of Land Ownership in India

The establishment of land ownership in India is governed by comprehensive land records maintained by various state governments. These records serve as legal evidence of ownership and provide essential details about land parcels. The process involves the systematic recording of ownership transfers, transactions, and other relevant information.

What Is a Land Record?

In colloquial terms, the phrase “land record” refers to the maintaining of a record of any land-related transaction, including sales and purchases. In the past, land was passed down via families much like surnames were. 

The family was the land’s natural owner. But as of now, everything has changed. Physical copies and tangible proofs are now valued. Concerning the entire property transaction, no verbal communications are sufficient.

The most secure investment and one with the most incoming and leaving transactions is land. To protect the history of the land, records are retained. These records include the owner’s name, the map’s size and scale, the name and location of the land, and information about the land’s geology.

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Where Land Records Are Maintained

Land records in India are typically maintained by state revenue departments. Village or taluka-level offices, known as “Tehsil” or “Mandal” offices, play a crucial role in managing and updating land records. Additionally, digitisation initiatives have been introduced to streamline the process and enhance accessibility.

Where to Get the Land Records?

Every transaction or deal is recorded in some place, but finding a reliable source is usually challenging. To make it a  little easier, segregate and find the appropriate data accordingly. 

Like if there is any buying or selling of agricultural land, the revenue department will maintain a record of that deal. On the other hand, for all the non-agricultural transactions, the registration department will keep a record.

Begin Your Search Manually

Regarding land records in India, each state has its own set of regulations in place. Therefore, it becomes difficult to discover information about the property. One of the greatest and easiest ways is to speak with local real estate agents. 

You may get considerably more specific information about the land you are monitoring. With the assistance of a local real estate professional, you may get the knowledge necessary to locate land ownership information.

You can go and obtain the latest deed details at one of the following offices:

The Registration Department

The department primarily serves as the registration center and performs sale deeds and encumbrance certificate maintenance tasks

The Revenue Department

The Revenue Department is primarily responsible for collecting land taxes and keeping revenue records

Survey and Settlement Department

The Department maintains the spatial land records, which comprise village and city survey maps, conducts regular surveys, gathers land-related data, and updates the maps.

Statewise Data

Every state has its laws, rules, and regulations about land. We can get the details either manually or online. Manually, one needs to go to the local office of the land registry department and give the application for the required documents. With the charge of a nominal fee, the department will hand over the requested documents. One must visit the land department’s official website online and fill out the required forms to acquire a copy of the land record. 

 How to Get Access to Land and Property Records From These Departments

Accessing land and property records involves visiting the respective state’s revenue department office. However, many states have embraced digitisation, allowing individuals to access records online. Interested parties can obtain these records by submitting formal requests, zrequiring specific details such as survey numbers or property owner names.

What Is in a Land Record?

Property is immovable, and it is crucial to maintain a land purchase record to claim it. According to the property registration Act of 1908, all transactions involving the sale of real property must be registered. These documents are discovered to contain the following information:

Land Records

The transactional data solely includes all land-related transactions. Every land transaction must be recorded and kept for future reference. When land is sold, both the buyer and seller establish and sign a sales contract. The document is then registered and safeguarded per the Registration Act of 1908. The deed is subsequently presented to the taluka/tehsil office, which records the land ownership changes.

Textual Data

Textual data comprises a written description of the land and often demonstrates how the owner acquired the property to the law. This information reveals whether the land was under rent, lease, or tenancy. You can also discover details on any loans secured over the property by the owner.

Spatial Data

A periodic survey is undertaken to update the geographic data that identifies the land’s use, such as residential or commercial use, its area if it is linked to roadways, its distance from the major market, and information about adjacent water sources. The survey and Settlement Department is in charge of carrying out the survey.

Issues With Keeping Land Records

Land transactions will be massive with a population of more than one billion people. To keep actual records of all these deeds requires a substantial amount of staff and office space. There has been extensive work done and is being done to digitize these documents completely.

Fraudulent acts are a common occurrence nowadays. Individuals create false property titles to eradicate black money, making it harder to get true documents.

Land Records Digitisation

Land records digitisation is a transformative initiative aimed at modernising and centralising land management systems. This process involves converting physical records into electronic formats, enhancing efficiency, and transparency, and reducing the likelihood of fraud.

Details Available in Digitised Land Records

Digitised land records typically include information on land ownership, survey numbers, land dimensions, and transaction history. These details are essential for verifying ownership, resolving disputes, and facilitating land-related transactions.

 How to Check Digitised Land Records Using a Dedicated Online Portal

  • Visit dedicated online portals provided by respective state governments.
  • Register on the platform to create an account.
  • Input specific details such as survey numbers or property owner names.
  • Access digitized land records through the provided interface.
  • Retrieve comprehensive information related to the land, including ownership details and survey data.
  • Ensure compliance with any additional steps or requirements specified by the respective state portal.
  • Benefit from the convenience and accessibility offered by digitized land records for informed decision-making.

Types of Land to Check State-Wise Land Records

State-wise land records serve as a crucial repository, systematically documenting various land types prevalent in different regions of India. The inclusiveness of these records extends to diverse categories, encompassing agricultural, residential, commercial, and government-owned land. Each state undertakes the meticulous task of maintaining and updating its land records to create a comprehensive and well-organised database.

Agricultural land records offer valuable insights into farming practices, land ownership, and cultivation details, aiding in agricultural planning and resource allocation. Residential land records provide a detailed account of individual and community dwellings, supporting urban development initiatives and housing policies. Commercial land records focus on properties designated for business activities, contributing to effective zoning regulations and economic development planning. Government-owned land records play a crucial role in promoting transparency and accountability in public administration, enabling optimal utilisation of state resources.

List of Land Records in India: State-Wise Online Portals

Several states in India have established online portals for convenient access to land records. These portals vary by state, and users can search for specific state-wise online platforms to access relevant information.

State Name Land Record Name Online Portal
Andhra Pradesh Meebhoomi
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Land Record
Assam Dharitee
Bihar Bhulekh
Chhattisgarh Bhuiyan
Goa Goa Land Records
Gujarat AnyRoR
Haryana Jamabandi
Himachal Pradesh Himbhoomi
Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Land Record
Jharkhand Jharbhoomi
Karnataka Bhoomi
Kerala E-Rekha
Madhya Pradesh Bhulekh
Maharashtra Bhulekh Mahabhumi
Manipur Louchapathap
Meghalaya Meghalaya Land Records
Mizoram Mizoram Land Records
Nagaland Directorate of Land Records and Survey
Odisha Bhulekh
Punjab Punjab Land Record Society
Rajasthan Apna Katha/E-Dharti
Sikkim Land Revenue and Disaster Management
Tamil Nadu Patta Chitta
Telangana Dharani
Tripura Jami Tripura
Uttar Pradesh Bhulekh
Uttarakhand Bhulekh/Devbhoomi
West Bengal Bangla Bhumi
Delhi Delhi Loan Record

State-Wise Land Record Mobile Apps

Certain states have introduced mobile apps for accessing land records, providing users with a convenient way to verify ownership and other details using their smartphones. These apps often feature user-friendly interfaces for easy navigation.

mHimbhoomi (HP Land Records): Developed by the National Informatics Centre, mHimbhoomi allows residents of Himachal Pradesh to easily access their Jamabandi and other land-related details.

Bhoomi (Karnataka Land Records): Crafted by the Revenue Department of the Government of Karnataka, Bhoomi enables users to retrieve land records information for properties in Karnataka.

AnyRoR (Gujarat Land Records): AnyRoR, a third-party mobile app, offers convenient access to Gujarat land records, linked to the AnyRoR online portal. Users are advised to be cautious when sharing personal information, as the app is not officially managed by the Gujarat State Government.

Jharbhoomi (Jharkhand Land Records): Jharbhoomi, a third-party mobile application, provides users with essential land-related information for Jharkhand. Since it is not operated by the Jharkhand State Government, users should refrain from sharing confidential information on the app.

Exploring and understanding these aspects of land records in India is crucial for property owners, prospective buyers, and those involved in land-related transactions. It ensures transparency and facilitates a smoother process for land-related dealings, reducing the risk of disputes and promoting efficient land management.


A transparent system for land records is essential to get accurate facts and figures. Digitisation is a small step, but still, there is a long way to go. For any further information related to finding land records in India seamlessly, you can get in touch with Vakilsearch.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who keeps land records in India?

Land records in India are typically maintained by the respective state governments. The Revenue Department or the Land Revenue Administration of each state is responsible for recording and updating these records.

How can I prove ownership of land in India?

Ownership of land in India can be proven through legal documents such as sale deeds, title deeds, or property registration documents. These documents, issued by the government authorities, serve as evidence of ownership.

Can I claim ownership of land I have used for 20 years in India?

In certain cases, the law in India recognizes adverse possession, where long-term occupation and use (commonly 12 to 20 years) without dispute may lead to a claim of ownership. However, legal advice is recommended for specific cases.

What is proof of possession of land?

Proof of possession of land includes documents like lease agreements, rent receipts, or utility bills in the occupant's name. These documents establish the right to possess and use the land, even if ownership lies elsewhere.

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