Save Big on Taxes with Expert Assisted ITR Filing from ₹799!

Got an ITR notice? Talk to our CA for the right response.
Employment Agreement

Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee: Meaning and Details

Explore the intricacies of Contracts of Indemnity and guarantees in India. Understand their legal aspects, obligations, and how they safeguard parties against potential losses. Dive into expert legal insights now!

In the realm of the Indian Contract Act, two distinctive contracts hold prominence the Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee. The Contract of Guarantee involves three key players: the creditor, the surety, and the principal debtor. The surety pledges to repay the creditor in case of default by the principal debtor.

On the other hand, the Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee revolves around one party compensating the loss or amount incurred by another party. In this scenario, the indemnifier bears the loss, while the indemnified, also known as the indemnity holder, holds the right to settle damages and legal defence costs.

Contract of Indemnity:

As elucidated earlier, this contract involves one party compensating the loss suffered by another. The indemnity giver, known as the indemnifier, provides compensation, and the indemnified or indemnity holder has the right to settle all incurred damages and legal defense costs.

  • Commencement of Liability:

  The indemnity is not limited to post-payment reimbursement; it demands that the indemnifier fulfills the duty to pay as soon as it becomes specific and apparent.

  • Indemnity Bond:

  An indemnification bond allows employees to leave their job before the predetermined period, subject to the forfeiture cost of the bond. The withdrawal is permissible only when both the bond money and the restriction period are reasonable.

Example of Indemnity:

Let’s imagine a situation where Mark is organizing a music festival and hires a professional sound equipment provider, Sonic Sound Co. to supply the necessary equipment. Mark wants to ensure that if there is any damage to the equipment during the festival, Sonic Sound Co. will be indemnified for the losses incurred.

  • Parties involved:

  1. Indemnifier: Mark (organizer)
  2. Indemnified: Sonic Sound Co. (sound equipment provider)
  • Situation:

  1. Agreement: Mark and Sonic Sound Co. enter into a contract of indemnity. Mark agrees to compensate Sonic Sound Co. for any loss or damage to the sound equipment during the festival.
  2. Scope of Indemnity: The contract specifies that Mark will cover all costs associated with repairing or replacing the damaged equipment, including legal expenses.
  • Rights and Obligations:

  1. Sonic Sound Co. has the right to claim indemnity as soon as they incur losses due to damage during the festival.
  2. Mark is obligated to promptly compensate Sonic Sound Co. for the assessed damages.
  3. The indemnity covers not only direct damages but also any legal actions or costs arising from the damage.

Contract of Guarantee:

This unique contract involves three entities: the surety or surer, who provides the guarantee; the principal debtor, who receives the guarantee; and the creditor, who is owed the money. The guarantee may be in written or oral form and could extend over a series of transactions, termed as a continuing guarantee.

Salient Features of Guarantee:

  • Principal Debtor:

    The guarantee is provided to secure a debt, making it valid even if the debtor is incompetent. However, if the surety is incompetent, the contract is deemed invalid.

  • Consideration:

    A valid contract of guarantee requires sufficient consideration from the debtor to validate the surety’s guarantee.

  • Misrepresentation:

    Contracts formed from misrepresentation are considered invalid. It could arise from the creditor withholding material information or from the debtor misleading the surety in the context of the employment agreement contract.

Example of Guarantee:

Let’s consider a scenario where Alex, a small business owner, is seeking a loan from a bank to expand his business. The bank, before approving the loan, requires a Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee to ensure repayment. Alex’s friend, Sarah, agrees to act as a surety in this situation.

  • Parties involved:

  1. Creditor: The bank
  2. Principal Debtor: Alex (borrower)
  3. Surety: Sarah (guarantor)
  • Situation:

  1. Agreement: Sarah signs a guarantee agreement with the bank, pledging that if Alex defaults on the loan, she will be responsible for the repayment.
  2. Continuing Guarantee: The agreement specifies that this guarantee will apply to the entire loan duration, covering not just the initial amount but also any future extensions or increases.
  • Rights and Obligations:

  1. Sarah’s liability is triggered only if Alex fails to fulfill his repayment obligations.
  2. The bank can directly claim the outstanding amount from Sarah in case of default by Alex.
  3. Sarah has a right to know about any changes in the terms of the loan.

Discharge of Surety from Liability:

The surety is freed from liability under various circumstances, including revocation, death of the surety, variances in the contract, discharge or release of the principal debtor by the creditor, composition, extension of time, promise not to sue, and more.

Rights of Surety:

The surety holds rights against the principal debtor, the creditor, and co-sureties. These rights encompass subrogation, the right to indemnity, access to creditor’s securities, right to set-off, release of co-surety, and the right to contribution.


In summary, both the Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee involve a third party pledging to pay the debt of another party. Vakilsearch offers comprehensive knowledge and assistance regarding these contracts, ensuring a clear understanding of their nuances and implications.

FAQs: Contract of Indemnity and Guarantee

How does the limitation of liability work in a contract of indemnity, and are there any restrictions on the scope of indemnification?

The limitation of liability in a contract of indemnity is typically defined within the contract terms. Restrictions may include specific events or conditions that limit the indemnifier's obligation. The scope of indemnification is subject to the language and intent of the contract.

What is the duration of the liability in both a contract of indemnity and a contract of guarantee?

The duration of liability in a contract of indemnity and guarantee is usually until the risk or obligation ceases to exist. It may be explicitly defined in the contract terms or end upon the fulfillment of the specified conditions.

Can a contract of indemnity or guarantee be revoked or altered, and under what circumstances?

Both contracts can be altered or revoked by mutual consent of the parties involved. Changes may also occur due to specific events outlined in the contract. However, unilateral alteration is generally not allowed without the agreement of all parties.

What is the process for claiming indemnity or enforcing a guarantee, and what documentation is typically required?

To claim indemnity or enforce a guarantee, the indemnitee or beneficiary must notify the indemnifier or guarantor. Documentation may include proof of loss, details of the claim and adherence to any procedural requirements specified in the contract.

Are there specific legal requirements or formalities that must be followed when entering into a contract of indemnity or guarantee?

While specific requirements may vary by jurisdiction, contracts of indemnity and guarantee generally require clear and unambiguous terms. It's advisable to follow legal formalities, including drafting the contract in writing, clearly defining obligations, and obtaining necessary signatures to ensure enforceability.

Also, Read:

Subscribe to our newsletter blogs

Back to top button


Remove Adblocker Extension