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Patent Protection Act in India 2023 – Rights, Laws

Read this blog to understand everything related to the patent protection act in India and why it is important for individuals and businesses alike.

Meaning of Patent

Patent Protection Act – Innovation is the driving force behind progress, and for inventors and businesses in India, protecting their valuable inventions is crucial. Patent registration offers exclusive rights and legal protection for inventions, encouraging innovation and providing inventors with the opportunity to reap the rewards of their hard work and creativity. 

A patent is a legal protection granted to an inventor or applicant, conferring exclusive rights to make, use, and sell their invention for a limited period. It provides legal recognition and prevents others from exploiting the invention without permission.

What is a Patent?

A patent is a legal document that is given by the state or national government, depending on the national standards. It grants an innovator the exclusive right to manufacture, use, and sell his or her product for a set length of time. Continue this article to know more about Patent Protection Act.

A patent is any business owner’s exclusive and legal right over their innovative product or services. It protects businesses from unfair and unethical rivals. It is important to note that patent protection is required in several companies, which has also become a mandate.

Patent Protection Act: History of Patent

Patent systems have a long history dating back to ancient civilizations. The concept of granting exclusive rights to inventors gained prominence during the Renaissance. Today, patent systems play a vital role in fostering innovation and economic growth.

If you are seeking professional assistance for patent registration in India, look no further than Zolvit (formerly Vakilsearch). With our expertise and dedicated team of legal professionals, we provide comprehensive patent registration services tailored to your needs. Protect your innovative ideas and leverage our expertise to navigate the patent registration process smoothly.

What can be Patented?

Under the Patent Protection Act, several inventions are eligible for patent protection. These include novel processes, machines, products, compositions, and improvements thereof. However, abstract ideas, natural phenomena, and discoveries are generally not patentable.

Rights and Obligations of the Patentee

As per the Patent Protection Act,  as a patentee, you enjoy exclusive rights over your invention. This includes the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, or importing your patented invention without your consent. It is essential to fulfill certain obligations, such as disclosing the invention in a complete and clear manner to the patent office.

  • Rights of Patentee

As a patentee, you are bestowed with exclusive rights over your invention. These rights empower you to prevent others from making, using, or selling your patented invention without your permission. Patent protection not only safeguards your intellectual property but also provides a competitive advantage by granting you a monopoly over the invention for a limited period. It serves as a powerful incentive for inventors and businesses to innovate and contribute to technological advancements.

  • Obligations of Patentee

Along with the rights, patentees also have certain obligations. It is essential to disclose your invention fully and accurately during the application process. By doing so, you contribute to the body of knowledge and promote transparency in the patent system. Additionally, maintaining your patent in force by paying the necessary fees and complying with any required obligations ensures that your rights are protected and upheld.

Why Do Businesses Require Patent Protection?

This is a common question asked by an interested audience. For instance, an innovative (here innovation can mean any business that brings in some new product or service) business owner cracks a business secret that impresses the customers.

There is a high chance that they will be able to enjoy the fruits of hard work when the business continues in the long term. Simultaneously, having an innovative mind helps attract a large number of customers. Over time, innovation in any industry will enable the owner to take advantage of product differentiation by impressing the customers.

On the other hand, the unique selling proposition in the business, unfortunately, attracts customers and competitors. They are most likely to quickly imitate or replicate the design or the model of the product or the services under the provision. This will fast erode the initial advantages that an innovative business owner had enjoyed on priority. 

Simultaneously, this will help unethical business owners gain without doing such hard work. Thus, this scenario will discourage the overall innovative spirit of any enterprising business owner. This is, of course, bad news for the individual business owner. Not only the parent business concerned remains to be affected. Such unethical practices can affect the business environment in the given market segment. 

The patent works as an armour, which empowers and protects innovative business owners from such unfair and unethical business rivals. Thus, patent protection is used as a mark of appreciation to reward a creative business owner. This is supposed to encourage other businesses further to think out of the box to replicate the success of its rival ethically and healthily. The Patent Protection is Necessary for Business Safety.

Few Facts About the Patent and Patent Protection Act

  • It applies to any product or service that has innovation elements. 
  • Such a product or service must be industrially applicable in any given market. 
  • Patent right is usually offered for manufacturing, importing, selling or offering to sell or licensing etc. Once a Patent is granted for a particular invention, no third party can creep into this space without the consent of the respective patent owner. 
  • The government of any country issues patents. 
  • Usually, a patent is valid for a limited time. For example, it is valid for 20 years or so in most countries. This is to prevent establishing a monopoly concerning any particular market in the long run. 
  • A patent usually is valid over a particular jurisdiction. Beyond that geographical jurisdiction, a patent owner is not protected from their competitors.
  • Patent protection allows only the patent owner to exploit or gain from their invention. Any third party violating and creeping into the patented space will be considered infringing. Thus they will be liable to face legal action against that. 

How to Apply for Patent Protection in India? 

Indian Intellectual Property RightsUnder the Patent Act 1970, in India, a patent is issued to protect the individual’s right to invent a particular process or product. You can file a patent application in any of its four regional offices in India. The offices issuing patents are situated in Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. Apart from that, presently, Patent Applications can also be made online. 

The facility for online patent applications has made the whole process fast, convenient, efficient, less tedious and overall, more transparent. 

Types of Patent Application

In India, there are three types of Patent Application 

  • Ordinary application (with provisional and complete specification)
  • PCT application or PCT National Phase application
  • Conventional application

Documents Required for Patent Application

Documents needed for submission when applying for an ordinary patent application are as follows: 

  • Form 1 – Application for patent grant
  • Form 2 – Optional with wide-ranging specifications
  • Form 3 – Information and undertaking
  • Form 5 – Statement by the inventors

It takes 18 months for the completion of the application process for patents. After the initial process, within the next 48 months applicant must apply for the initiation of the examination process. It should be borne in mind that, applying for a patent does not automatically start the procedure of examination. Rather one needs to separately apply for it. Failure to do so will automatically initiate the course of abandonment or cancellation of the application process for a patent. 

A patent will only be granted if the applicant had furnished all the required documents favouring the application and all claims made by him or her. 

Few Things to Remember When Applying for a Patent 

  • If a business wants to be protected by a patent, the owner must apply for it. The business inventor himself/herself can apply for a patent, or he/she can appoint someone else or an agent who will apply for a patent on behalf of his/her client. 
  • In India there are authorised patent agents who work to facilitate the process of application, minimising the hassle for the applicant. 
  • Before applying for a patent, the applicant must have a registered office within the country. Anyone outside India has to appoint an authorised patent agent who can use it on their behalf. 
  • As the patent is territory specific, anyone who belongs to some other jurisdiction should contact an authorised agent in a different market.
  • After the application is made, the concerned governing body will verify the applicant’s claim by examining the declaration made by the applicant regarding their product or service whatsoever. 
  •  The patent application is applied in a country under which prescribed patent laws are being implemented. The patent application mainly consists of a specification defining the invention of the product or the service defined within a framework.  A patent application needs to be furnished with the set of claims as directed.
  • The declaration process further endorses the function of a patent application, which needs to be done wherever applicable.


Procedure of Patent 

The process of patent registration in India follows a systematic approach. It involves several key steps, beginning with the preparation and filing of a patent application. The application should include a detailed description of the invention, along with relevant drawings and claims. 

Once filed, the application undergoes a thorough examination by the Patent Office to assess its novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability. Timely compliance with official notifications and responding to examination reports is crucial to navigate the registration process smoothly.

Grounds for Opposition 

To maintain the integrity of the patent system, provisions for opposition are in place. Third parties can oppose a patent application on various grounds, such as lack of novelty or inventive step. The Patent Office carefully considers opposition claims, ensuring that only valid patents are granted. This examination process helps foster innovation and ensures that patents meet the necessary requirements to protect inventors’ rights effectively.

What are the Authorities Concerning Patent

The administration of patents in India involves several authorities. The Controller General of Patents, Designs, and Trademarks is the key regulatory body responsible for overseeing the patent system. They handle the examination, granting, and maintenance of patents, ensuring compliance with the Patent Act and related regulations. Understanding the roles and functions of these authorities is crucial when engaging with the patent registration process.

Patent Infringement

Patent infringement occurs when someone uses, makes, sells, or imports a patented invention without the permission of the patentee. Infringement undermines the exclusive rights granted to the patentee and can result in significant financial losses. It is essential for patentees to be vigilant and take necessary measures to protect their inventions from unauthorized use or commercial exploitation.

Doctrine of Equivalents And Doctrine of Colourable Variation

In patent litigation, the Doctrine of Equivalents and the Doctrine of Colourable Variation play vital roles in determining the scope of patent protection. 

The Doctrine of Equivalents considers infringements beyond literal interpretations, focusing on elements that perform substantially the same function as claimed in the patent. 

On the other hand, the Doctrine of Colourable Variation addresses situations where minor modifications are made to the invention to circumvent patent protection. Understanding these doctrines is crucial when assessing potential infringements.

Remedies for Patent Infringement

In the unfortunate event of patent infringement, several legal remedies are available to the patentee. These remedies include seeking injunctive relief to halt the infringing activities, claiming damages for financial losses incurred, and obtaining an account of profits made by the infringer. 

Engaging legal professionals experienced in patent law is crucial to navigate the complex process of enforcing patent rights and seeking appropriate remedies. Get in touch with our experts today to stay protected!


Patent Protection Act: A patent application is a stringent process and requires careful documentation. Rules and norms are applicable in vast geographies concerned, and therefore patent protection is contextual concerning the market of operation. And although the process is time-consuming, it can keep your inventions and creations free from any violation.

At Zolvit (formerly Vakilsearch), we offer comprehensive Patent Registration services, providing expert assistance throughout the process. Let us help you protect your intellectual property and turn your innovative ideas into valuable assets.


Which is the Indian First Patent Act?

The Indian Patents and Designs Act of 1911 was the first legislation that addressed patents in India.

What are the 3 types of Patents?

The three types of patents are utility patents, design patents, and plant patents.

What are the 5 requirements of a Patent?

To obtain a patent, the invention must meet the requirements of novelty, inventive step, industrial applicability, enablement, and non-obviousness.

What are the two kinds of Patent?

The two main categories of patents are product patents, which protect new and useful products, and process patents, which safeguard new and useful processes or methods.

What is a Patent also called?

A patent is also commonly referred to as an intellectual property right or invention patent.

What are the types of Patents in India?

In India, patents can be granted for inventions falling under various categories, including product inventions, process inventions, and improvements to existing inventions.

What is a Patent and its types?

A patent is an exclusive right granted to an inventor or assignee to protect their invention. The types of patents include utility patents, design patents, and plant patents, each catering to specific types of inventions.

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