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GST on Cryptocurrency, NFT, VDA (Virtual Digital Asset)

A lot of people want to know about the GST on the supply of cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and virtual digital assets. Read the article to know more about it.

The growing popularity of Cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and Virtual Digital Assets demands a clear set of rules regarding their transactions and the tax that will be levied upon them. The government is yet to decide on the legal status and the category of cryptocurrencies. A comprehensive GST tax slab will be released for cryptocurrencies and NFT. This tax rate is expected to be between 18 to 28%. It is important that the government clarifies the state and position of digital assets and the GST charges on them. In this article, we will discuss GST on cryptocurreny, NFTs, and virtual digital assets and the instructions given by government authorities on them.

In India, the taxation of cryptocurrency under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) system has been a topic of debate and confusion. The GST is a value-added tax levied on the supply of goods and services in India. However, the GST on cryptocurrency is not explicitly addressed in the GST Act, leading to a lack of clarity on how to treat cryptocurrency transactions for tax purposes.

What is GST?

Goods and service tax was introduced in India in the year of 2017. It applies to all the service providers, traders, and manufacturers in India. There is a different percentage of tax specified for each type of service and product. For a company providing services, it is mandatory to pay the GST if the annual turnover is over ₹20 lakhs and if a company is a supplier of goods they have to pay the GST if their annual turnover is over ₹40 lakh. GST taxes differ according to the goods and services categories. For example, household necessities and medicines important for life-saving are taxed at 5%, and products like processed food and computers are taxed at 12%. Luxury items are Taxed at 28% and services are taxed at 18%. A document called GST return is to be filled by a taxpayer if they are eligible for paying GST. This document includes all the details about their business and their annual income. If you need help with GST filing you can take the help of Vakilsearch and contact our legal experts. Our team will help you with the entire process of GST filing and make the process easy and hassle-free for you.

GST on Cryptocurreny

The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has issued a circular in 2018 clarifying that the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another is considered a taxable supply of services under GST. This means that the exchanges providing such services are required to register for GST and pay taxes on their services.

However, the taxation of other cryptocurrency transactions, such as buying and selling of cryptocurrencies for fiat currency, is still unclear. The government has not provided clear guidelines on how to treat such transactions under GST, leading to confusion and uncertainty among taxpayers.

Cryptocurrency has gained a lot of popularity in the last few years. These are digital currencies that can be transacted virtually and have no physical form. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized; this means that government has no authority over them. The work on the blockchain system also provides transparency and allows people to track the transactions of cryptocurrencies.This has been indicated by the Indian government that they are planning to bring cryptocurrencies and other digital assets under the goods and service tax. The Finance Ministry is working on clarifying the status and the regulations on cryptocurrencies in India so that the tax slab can be worked on. The government is yet to decide the legal status of cryptocurrencies and after that, a GST rate will be set for them. This GST rate can change from 18% to 28%. The government has been trying to understand how the reading of cryptocurrency will affect the Indian economy and what taxes should be charged on them.


Non-fungible tokens or NFTs are digital assets that work on blockchain Technology. NFT is not fungible; this means that each NFT has its own Unique Identity and the value of one and it is not equal to any other at present. Each and every one of the NFTs has a unique owner and the ownership is transferred from one to another. NFTs are not defined by the CGST act of 2017 under goods and services. There is no specific HSN code for digital assets under the CGST Act of India. Therefore, NFTs are under the category of others under which a tax of 18% can be used for them.

GST on Virtual Digital Assets

Virtual digital assets can be defined as any form of information or token that represents a value and can be used in financial transactions. NFTs and other digital assets are included in VDAs. However, cryptocurrencies and digital currencies are not yet included in virtual digital assets under the GST act of India. Taxes will be decided on virtual digital assets after there is a clear distinction and differentiation of whether these virtual digital assets are classified as goods or services. Goods are considered movable properties and services are defined as anything other than goods. In the case of virtual digital assets the transfer is possible digitally but they are not present in physical form so the government has to decide whether to put them under the section of goods or services and then decide the tax slab for them. In the budget 2022, the Finance Ministry announced a 30% income tax on the transfer of virtual digital assets which will include cryptocurrencies. 1% of tax will be deducted on every trade of digital assets. Since these instructions and the legal status of virtual assets in India are not very clear this has left the traders in doubt and they demand clear laws regarding virtual digital assets. The input Tax credit can be claimed by the seller when GST is paid on the purchase of NFTs, cryptocurrencies, or virtual digital assets.


In conclusion, the GST on cryptocurrency under GST in India is still a complex and unclear issue. While the exchange of one cryptocurrency for another is considered a taxable supply of services, the gst on cryptocurrency transactions is still uncertain. The lack of clear guidelines from the government has led to confusion and uncertainty among taxpayers and exchanges, highlighting the need for further clarification on this matter.

The working and transactions related to cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and virtual digital assets are still emerging. In India, the government is trying to understand the working of these assets and how they will affect the economy of the nation. There are no stiff rules related to them and they are not defined clearly under the CGST Act of 2017

In 2022 the Finance Ministry announced that they are working on the GST Tax slab for cryptocurrencies NFTs and other Virtual Digital Assets. The tax would range from 18% to 28%. There are multiple marketplaces where NFTs are sold. Cryptocurrency has also emerged in India in recent years and the people wanting to deal with cryptocurrencies are demanding clear laws related to them. If you want to move ahead with the process of GST filing you can take help from Legal Experts at Vakilsearch. You can enter the basic details and submit an application and a legal advisor will contact you. They will help you through the entire GST registration process and filing so that the entire process is smooth and free of errors.

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